Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Happy Earth Day!!! Back to Beavers and New Mexico Webinar on Beaver in Jemez Watershed

First of all, a belated Happy Earth Day. More on the challenges facing us environmentally at the end. I want to draw a little attention to the webinar, which starts at 1 pm today on the effect of beaver in the Jemez watershed in New Mexico. This should be an especially interesting and pertinent topic with regards to beaver in arid landscapes, a subject which we talk a lot about here on southland beaver. Follow the link here to sign up. Copied from Heidi's blog is the abstract below:

Abstract – Beaver are known for their engineering abilities and their impact on water resources. Water is a valuable resource in the arid southwest, and the focus of this study was to evaluate the impact of beaver re-establishment on the water resources of the Jemez Watershed in New Mexico for future state-wide management planning. The Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool (BRAT) was used to evaluate the current capacity of the watershed based on vegetation, baseflow, and flood stream power. The model demonstrated that the watershed is capable of supporting a re-established beaver population and identified the suitable stream reaches for dam building activities. Using HEC-HMS, we captured the hydrologic response of the Jemez River to precipitation by calibrating it to historic hydrographs. Once calibrated, 42 reservoir elements representing beaver dams were added to the Rio de las Vacas region to simulate an initial re-established population of beavers. The results indicate an attenuation of 5-30% of peak flows and an increase in baseflow of 5-15%. Additionally, we calculated the increase of aquatic and riparian habitat from dam construction and pond formation. It was determined that 15 special-status species in the watershed could potentially benefit from beaver activity and habitat creation. The Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii viginalis; state-sensitive) could utilize ponds as habitat and take advantage of dams as barriers to non-native trout movements and the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus; state-endangered, federally proposed) could utilize the increase in riparian habitat bordering ponds. It is possible that the re-establishment of beaver to the Jemez Watershed would allow theses species to expand into previously extirpated portions of their range, highlighting the positive impacts of beaver on water resources in this area of the arid southwest.
Who: Bryan Bird, Wild Places Program Director, WildEarth Guardians
Alexandre Caillat, Bren School Masters Candidate
Bret Callaway, Bren School Masters Candidate
Drake Hebert, Bren School Masters Candidate
Andrew Nguyen, Bren School Masters Candidate
Shelby Petro, Bren School Masters Candidate*

Now I got a little side-tracked with wolves for a bit there but that is a very important issue in California conservation and I am a firm believer in cross-talk and spreading the word for important wildlife/conservation issues. 

But I do have some upcoming posts planned with regards to beaver:

I want to continue with Mojave Beaver and discuss some of the evidence I have found that beaver there are highly beneficial to reptiles, amphibians, and bird-life.

Lampreys do not get enough respect. I want to talk about several layers of evidence that   lampreys benefit salmonids and that beaver ponds benefit immature lamprey. In my view abundant lamprey, salmonids, and beaver should be the end goal in river restoration in coastal North America. They may in fact form a triumvirate indicative of ecological health in a watershed. Stay tuned!!!

Beaver in the high Sierra!!!

Beaver and western pond turtles!!!

Beaver and aquatic fungi!!!

Vern Freeman Diversion Dam field trip on the Santa Clara River!!!

My message for Earth Day:

The environmental situation we find ourselves in today- beholden to a set of economic, political, and social paradigms that many interpret as natural, beneficial, and even decreed by god -is not dissimilar to the situation abolitionists found themselves in during earlier centuries. And then, just as now, there will be a vocal group advocating the status quo as what is right, natural, and decreed by God. The challenges we face today are not of a different type but of a different degree than earlier generations.

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Fish and Game Commission:Decision on Whether Or Not To List Grey Wolf (Canis lupus) As A Threatened or Endangered Species

Beth Katte
Decision: We are going to wait another 90 days. And when we reconvene in Fortuna California (closer to the cow folk) and take some more public input (because over 60 largely pro-wolf talks was not enough) then we will have a decision.

How does one animal (OR-7) not constitute an endangered population? Any first graders out there that can help us with the math? One minus one is how much? How many meetings do we need to look and see that the number one- the indivisible one -one is the loneliest number that you'll ever be.....

Three Dog Night- One (Is the loneliest number)

So in honor of the intrepid ray of hope OR-7 the song you all know but you probably never remembered the band name of- the appropriately named Three Dog Night!!!

Wolf Rally Speech by Amaroq Weiss of Center For Biological Diversity

All kidding aside the rally and commission meeting was bittersweet. Encouraging to see the dominating presence of wolf advocates, including ranchers, and their excellent speeches. And disappointing because the commission and the CDFW "scientists" who provided the recommendation not to list h̶a̶v̶e̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶i̶r̶ ̶h̶e̶a̶d̶s̶ ̶u̶p̶ ̶t̶h̶e̶i̶r̶ ̶a̶s̶s̶e̶s̶ insist on ending up on the wrong side of history. I am left shaking my head at their decision making process. They seem that they want to respect the process of a "stakeholder's group" and that protected status will somehow limit options available to them... or we can't protect something that does not have a reproductively viable population currently. A lot of hooey to me. We did that for wolverines, Guadalupe fur seals, and condors- all of which, like wolves, are highly mobile animals that can traverse thousands of miles. Give wolves protected status even if they do not have reproduction going on here. Provide financial recompense towards livestock losses. Provide impetus for ranchers to engage in non-lethal deterrents. 

Chuck Bonham and Eric Loft were the two CDFW people that somehow came up with this untenable position. They asserted that wolves in California will not face significant dangers from people. What?? There are loads of people, yes even in California, that would love to shoot wolves. The only reason wolves recolonized the areas in our country that they did was because of protected status. They also asserted several times in their premeditated defense that although wolf habitat was available in the state- mainly in the north part of the state and the sierra- wolves were heavily dependent on ungulate prey, especially elk. And because tule elk are still recovering in the state prey availability is an issue. As I pointed out, in my brilliant speech, there are well documented populations of wolves in southeast Alaska and British Columbia that subsist primarily on marine resources. Wolves are opportunistic predators that will subsist on jack-rabbits, salmon, seals- whatever is available. In California we have huge and growing populations of feral pigs, especially in the central part of the state, wolves could be an effective culling agent for these invasives and this would greatly expand potential wolf habitat. Wolves in Eurasia regularly kill huge Russian wild boar so they should handle our pigs. Additionally, and this may offend some horse lovers, there are feral populations of horses in California and Nevada that the U.S. is looking for ways to control their population...hmmmmm Wolves are not the most effective predators of horses, but they would be the most logical predator save we bring back North American lions...

At the conclusion of the meeting one of the commissioners did volunteer that wolves would eventually be listed in California, just not today. Sigh....

Here is my speech, it totally rocks:

In several states where wolves have been restored a significant anti-wolf rhetoric and propaganda machine has taken root.

In many people's minds wolves have been conflated into symbols of government over-reach.

In their want-on destruction of wolves and other predators these states have betrayed an implicit trust that the American people have granted them to restore these animals. Living with wolves should not be seen as a burden but a privilege.  

If other states lack the political will-power, creativity, and gumption to co-habitate with wolves then please allow California the opportunity to do so.

Commission I beseech you grant endangered species status to wolves in California. 

Support me on Patreon.
Like antediluvian salad on facebook.
Watch me on Deviantart @NashD1.Subscribe to my youtube channel Duane Nash.

Sunday, April 13, 2014

California Wolf and California Beaver: Two Keystone Species Trying to Make A Comeback

One is a predator, one is a herbivore. One is terrestrial, one is amphibious. Beaver and wolf might not be the most immediate bedfellows that you can imagine, in fact a wolf will- given the opportunity- eat a beaver. So why am I talking about wolf on a beaver blog? Well you might notice I talk about a lot of stuff besides beaver on this blog. Because beaver are a foundational keystone species whose actions have huge implications for threatened wildlife, habitats, water systems, agriculture, and policy: I do not think I am overstepping my cause by talking about all sorts of tangential subjects. Beaver ecology does not invite a myopic view of the world. Indeed the trophic cascade involving reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone, willows, elk, beaver, and songbird is well known- even if beaver might have got a little short thrift in their role in benefitting the Yellowstone watersheds. And ultimately when we look at the story of wolf in North America we see a lot of parallels to the story of beaver in North America.

Tlingit Beaver Clan House. link

Both wolf and beaver have two of the most widespread geographic ranges of all North American land mammals.

Both wolf and beaver featured significantly in the culture of native Americans.

Both wolf and beaver were relentlessly hunted and culled with the migration of Europeans into North America. The wolf due to its depredations on livestock and the beaver for its pelt.

Modern peer reviewed studies on beaver and wolf ecology posit both species as foundational keystone species. Animals that have a disproportionate benefit to the health of the ecosystems in which they occur.

Despite the known benefits that both animals offer a persistent mythology, false presentment of facts, and general propaganda machine has besmirched both wolves and beaver.

Both beaver and wolves are territorial. They will drive out, and potentially kill, intruders. They reproduce once a year. In this manner populations of both species are largely self-regulated. I.E. hunting/trapping by humans is not needed.

As keystone species with huge geographic ranges it is logical to assume that beaver and wolf shaped the ecological landscape of North America more than any other large native mammals (save humans).

Despite the claims of nay-sayers (usually with vested interests) when Europeans first ventured out into a continent full of beaver and wolf what did they find? Were ungulate herds diseased, malnourished, and low in number? Did beaver and wolf reproduce to plague like proportions? Were fish stocks barely holding on? Were salmon being thwarted by the impoundments of beaver?

Bison skulls for fertilizer. mid 1870's
In all instances NO... the amount of bison, pronghorn, and elk on the great plains is stuff of American lore. 30-60 million bison. 40-60 million pronghorn. 10 million elk. All these herbivores despite a population of up to 2 million wolves in North America. Salmon, lamprey, and steelhead just spilling out of our rivers- supporting unique native cultures in the Pacific Northwest that assumed permanent settlements due to the abundance of fish. The same waterways that housed up to 60-400 million beaver in them. All these animals doing just fine not despite of beaver and wolfbut because of them.

That beaver and wolf deserve a place in North America- we hold these truths to be self evident.

Please take a minute of your time to sign the prewritten email to CDFW who are aiming to not list wolves in CA as threatened. Although they wanted this emailed by April 3- do it anyways to make your voice heard. Center for Biological Diversity.

Help Protect Wolves in California (follow link!!!)

In addition please consider signing this prewritten email directed to the CA water board by American Rivers:

Tell the California Water Board: Restore Flows in the San Joaquin River (follow link!!!) 

So San Joaquin Delta. Laura Cunningham 2010

Support me on Patreon.
Like antediluvian salad on facebook.
Watch me on Deviantart @NashD1.Subscribe to my youtube channel Duane Nash.

Monday, April 7, 2014

Mojave River Beaver

Mojave River @ Afton Canyon. wiki Mar 2010
I am always drawn to things that live, and even thrive, in habitats where one would not presumably expect them to be. Hence my interest in southern steelhead which lead me to beaver and starting southland beaver. Quizzical looks, blank stares and "I doubt it man" guffaws when I talk about beaver in southern Californian watersheds. But when I am talking about re-introducing beaver throughout southern California this is actually something that has already been done before. Sporadically through out the 20's, 30's, and 40's the California Department of Natural Resources a division of fish and game released over 1200 beaver though out the state- including parts of southern California in counties such as Santa Barbara, Ventura, Kern, Tulare, San Luis Obispo, Los Angeles, Riverside, and San Diego. Kate Lundquist of Occidental Arts and Ecology Center WATER Institute ( was nice enough to furnish me with the list of transplants/dates/places. While some populations seem to have become extirpated since transplanting other populations may be growing and expanding in southern California. A lot of variables come into play as to why reintroductions do not work- not enough genetic diversity, predators, disease, drought - that beaver populations descended from these limited transplants are still surviving is amazing in itself. You see just a couple of individuals, usually less than 10, would be transplanted to any one spot. And that these southern Californian beaver beachheads survived and are still going for the most part is one of the most cogent arguments you can put forth as to why southern California has the habitat for beaver. And of the populations of beaver in socal that have persisted, the most interesting and, seemingly, anachronistic ones are the beaver that inhabit the Mojave river watershed. Yes the ephemeral, largely dry Mojave river has beaver. What is interesting is that although beaver were introduced in San Bernardino mountains, in which the headwaters to the Mojave lie, they were not directly released into the Mojave. So how did they get to the Mojave watershed, an endorheic basin that does not flow to the sea but simply vanishes into the desert? Willow Creek, a tributary of Deep Creek was planted with beaver and likely formed the nexus from which the population came from. But the Santa Ana river basin, which was stocked and still has beaver, is less than 10 kilometers away and so it is possible that there is exchange between the two populations as beaver can easily cover 10 kilometers overland. It is also possible that relict populations existed in these watersheds and were augmented by the transplants.

So what is up with these desert beavers? How do they make a living out there? Well Deep Creek is perennial and a wild trout river- so even if the Mojave goes bone dry beaver can find refuge in Deep Creek. But there are in fact certain sections of the Mojave that maintain year round flows. The Narrows and Afton canyon are the two best examples where shallow bedrock forces the largely subterranean river up. And if you scour the interwebs you can find some nice pics of the Mojave beaver dams.

Link to: all photos trashablanca
Beavers Relieve Waterdogs From SoCal Drought w/Pics 
by trashablanca 2007

Deep Creek. San Bernardino Co CA. trashablanca
Now we are always going on about how great beaver are for threatened wildlife/riparian species but how about just the fact that water is cool and dogs love beaver ponds too!!! Come on now what is not to like about the above pic? Who would not want beaver making dog ponds on your little trickle of a stream?

Deep Creek. San Bernardino Co CA. trashablanca
Look someone even made a cute little bridge over the pond....

beaver pond Deep Creek CA. trashablanca
And keep in mind that this beaver created desert oasis is formed by a mere trickle as the photo below shows the flow of water upstream from the beaver pond.

Spillway w/log guard. trashablanca

More to come as try to elucidate more about the Mojave River beaver and find some evidence that these  beaver may already be performing outstanding ecosystem services for a number of fish, reptiles, amphibians, and birds on this watershed.


Go further with these links:

Field Herp Forum (Repitle & Amphibians). Herping the Mojave River

Habitat Ebbs with Changing River

Mohave Tui Chub. Bureau of Land Management

Mohave Tui Chub. CDFW

Native Fish in a Bone Dry River: The Mojave Tui Chub's Slow Comeback

Report on a Workshop to Revisit the Mojave Tui Chub Recovery Plan and a Management Action Plan

UC Davis. Tricolored Blackbird Colony (400) in Beaver Marsh. Mojave River Victorville

Western Pond Turtle in Beaver Pond. Mojave River. Bureau of Land Management

Support me on Patreon.
Like antediluvian salad on facebook.
Watch me on Deviantart @NashD1.Subscribe to my youtube channel Duane Nash.

Friday, April 4, 2014

As the Fallout Continues... Will the Wars of the Future Be Over Water?

Not a lot of beaver news to talk about today, some news got us a little depressed at southland beaver... but ultimately we need stories like these to galvanize us.

This Just In... State and Federal Officials Announce Increased Delta Pumping to Occur to Capture Runoff from Recent Storms c/o Maven's Blog

Mark Cowin, Director of the Department of Water resources:

"Before we get into this specific action, just a couple of words on where we stand this year in terms of water supply.  Water conditions in general, as you know, today is the day of our April 1st snow survey.  I haven’t got all the information back from that survey yet, but suffice it to say that February and March storms have probably kept us from breaking records for historic drought this year, but they certainly haven’t rescued us from the drought.  We’re probably tracking somewhere in the range of the sixth, seventh or eighth driest year on record...."

"This latest action we wanted to brief you on today is the result of the extensive discussion among the Department of Water Resources, US Bureau of Reclamation, National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Department of Fish and Wildlife over the course of the last week or so.  Yesterday we took action to take advantage of the water runoff we’re seeing from recent storms, and DWR and Reclamation asked the NMFS to adjust one of its measures within the set of rules that come from the Endangered Species Act known as the biological opinion that would have gone into effect on April 1."

(this is not an April Fool's joke btw)

"So in an exchange of emails yesterday, NMFS officials concurred that this temporary adjustment to the inflow/export ratio won’t jeopardize listed salmonids and is consistent with the federal Endangered Species Act.  And during this period of time when this adjustment is in effect, another flow requirement that restricts the level of reverse flows in the Old and Middle River channels in the Delta, it’s called OMR, those restrictions will govern pumping levels over the course of the coming days and provide minimum protections for all fish species currently making their way through the Delta."

An exchange of emails, this is where we are at with the Endgangered Species Act these days. Water management- fast and loose.

Chuck Bonham, Director of the California Department of Fish and Game

"After a few quick thoughts of mine, we’ll turn to Q&A.  I’ve said to some of you before that in my opinion, we’re going to make it through this period because we’re working together, and if you are keeping track, since about the end of January, the five agencies, the two federal fish and wildlife agencies, and my department as well as the two water supply agencies have collaborated to manage at least half a dozen changes which allow us to achieve additional flexibility while still remaining within the boundaries of the existing and applicable laws and regulations.
On the state front, under the state Endangered Species Act, typically what happens is the DWR will consult with my department; my department has the benefit of the NMFS or USFWS findings about the proposed changes pursuant to the federal biological opinions and our department will review and then concurs that the findings are consistent with coverage under the California Endangered Species Act. We know right now that we’ve got most of our major fish species in or about the reach the Delta, and at the same time that we know these are our last likely major rainstorm events which matter a lot for water supply.
To be blunt about it, on every decision we’re making here, some constituents will believe we did not go far enough and other constituents will believe we went too far, and I think that’s a reflection of the challenge and the circumstances we’re in.
So with that …"

I am just going to leave it at that. That republican guy who hosted a Delta Smelt BBQ is probably happy but probably still wants a little more water. For his chia pet.

Who turned off the water? 180 steelhead left to dry and die in Hilton Creek...

Geez well that is kind of a bummer, I was just up there on the Santa Ynez. Hilton creek is sort of the tribute creek given over the steelhead because Lake Cachuma swallows up all the previous good habitat for the fish upstream. And so to compensate for that loss Hilton creek is pumped with enough water to provide year round cool flows furnishing supposedly up to 1000 fish. That is all fine and dandy except when the pump either breaks or PG&E shuts off the power.

Cachuma managers have gone to considerable expense and trouble to make Hilton Creek a perpetual Deltopia where steelhead can get hot and bothered all the time. They say their efforts have paid off, claiming 1,000 steelhead call Hilton Creek home. So they’re not buying the Bureau of Reclamation’s “accidents happen” defense. That’s in part because there have been eight, the first taking place October 25, 2012, the most recent, last Wednesday morning. To get steelhead in the mood, the Bureau of Reclamation pumps just enough water down a half-mile stretch of Hilton Creek to make their pheromones dance. The Bureau is supposed to have two pumps, just to make sure there are no problems. Turns out the backup pump doesn’t work at all and the main pump works only most of the time. But on eight occasions, the pump malfunctioned, the water stopped flowing, and the steelhead were stranded in mud. A couple of instances involved planned power outages that PG&E has announced in advance. In other instances, the pump just shut down. It’s twitchy and temperamental, it turns out, and only needs an uneven surge of power to shut down. (Nick Welsh, Santa Barbara Independent)

Sheesh. Face Palm. Double Face Palm.

One Big Ol' Steelie (Northern CA or Oregon likely)

Support me on Patreon.
Like antediluvian salad on facebook.
Watch me on Deviantart @NashD1.Subscribe to my youtube channel Duane Nash.

Thursday, April 3, 2014

Final Thoughts on Coastal Salmonid Restoration Conference

North Fork Matilija Creek. Ventura County D. Nash
I have been dilly-daddlying on this post for a while now, not sure how I want to approach it. I have decided that I don't really have the time or effort to do a blow-by-blow on the speeches I attended. Instead I just want to do a quick and dirty run through of some of the common themes, questions, observations, and points that have stuck with me and which I think matter the most.

Woody debris. N Fork Matilija Creek. Ventura County. D Nash
Woody debris is good- whether a tree falls down, floods distribute it or you just put it there yourself -wood is a natural substrate from which algae, bacteria, fungi can grow on which in turn feed invertebrates and which in turn feed fish. I think of wood in water as a slow release fertilizer- it is not going to stimulate an oxygen depleting environment with loads of nutrients/bacteria but a slow trickle of nutrients into the system. Of course I should not have to preach to the converted on this blog but a general theme for many of the presentations- creating pools, side channels, infusion of woody debris, bank stabilization -yeah this can all be stuff that beaver do. But you too can be the beaver (stolen from Swiftwater Design).

Woody debris. N Fork Matilija Creek. Ventura County. D Nash

Coastal coho salmon and steelhead salmon are facing some pretty depressing obstacles. Drought, diversions, climate change, dams, inconsistent water releases, public apathy and outright antipathy have all conspired to create a unique feeling of dread when it comes to the maintenance or restoration of many populations. Indeed many presenters took the tone that some watersheds we should basically just give up on and concentrate on the ones that show the best promise. The pragmatic part of me concedes a bit towards it but I just can't in good conscience admit defeat to populations that are still going at it despite all the shit we throw at them.

From this I want to dovetail into some of the issue with southern steelhead- a fish that was featured very prominently at this conference and which of course means a lot to me. I did notice that a lot of salmon people are a decidedly north-western lot- this makes sense too -so I think it was eye opening and alarming for them to come to southern California and try to envisage how southern steelhead make a go of it in our water limited landscape. How does a fish actually utilize a river that is not there more than 90% of the time, such as the Santa Maria? Not only are these fish on the edge of existence naturally but team humanzee is not really helping 'em. You see California is a little funny in that, of all the things we do regulate, groundwater is not one of them. And in the looter in a riot mentality of  agribusiness this over-withdrawl of 1000+ year old water has meant subsidence and actually a switch to more water intensive crops like nuts, berries, and grapes.

And then when limits are imposed on farmers or their 1000 foot deep wells start going dry due to their unsustainable year round farming practices- or their neighbor sucks the water table dry -guess who gets blamed- delta smelt and salmon. And they are the purported victims because they grow food for you and I to eat- but not because they are benevolent providers - but because they are making money doing it.

California farmers gamble while the blame game goes on and on...

Now let us get back to southern steelhead and water rights. I was in Santa Paula and checking out the santa clara river when I noticed a whole bunch of diversions- some legal and some not -and was surprised to hear that senior water rights allowed some farmers on the river to divert surface flows!?! This was according to an employee of the nature conservancy and so it seemed pretty legit- I am just surprised at California's weird antiquated water rights policies. Just so you know the santa clara is one of the last bastions for southern steelhead among a number of other endangered and threatened species.

Water Diversions: Legal and Illegal on the Santa Clara River

So where does this leave us? How do we find room for fish in an increasingly chaotic and divisive water regime? Some of the best points at the convention were not brought up by presenters but by particularly pointed questions and comments by the audience.

As I observed there were more more people in attendance than successfully returning and spawning southern steelhead in the whole of their range. The conference with more people than actual fish one attendee confirmed.

One commentator regarding Charlotte Ambrose's insightful speech on the history of failed salmonid conservation going back well into history said to paraphrase:

"Has there ever been a society that managed to save salmon where that society did not fundamentally look at the environment as a resource, an economic asset?"

And I think the long and short of the answer to that question is no... And that one question really gets to the heart of the matter regarding salmon, and indeed all conservation efforts. Saving salmonids- especially in semiarid California -will require fundamentally seismic shifts in how we view nature and our relationship to it. Do we own nature, is it there for us to look at when we please and disavow when economic interests trump? Or does it have a right to exist for its own sake? I, as you might assume support the latter, because as I have said before,  business will always find it's voice, money will not stay hushed up in the corner and look on meekly... and all business comes and go- more ephemeral than a southern Californian river you might say - but what is left in the wake? Is the land, water, and animals so disturbed that the system is now a dead zone?

And for me this is where the salmon restoration federation conference must go in the future, and I love interesting science knowledge and studies that illuminate new insights, but we will have to increasingly focus on getting the public to care about fish or else we will not have anything left to pit tag or study...

Enjoy some Midnight Oil- remember them? For me better than U2 and in my view one of the most prophetic and insightful bands that speaks to present times. River Runs Red performed in front of Exxon building.

So you cut all the tall trees down 
You poisoned the sky and the sea 
You've taken what's good from the ground 
But you left precious little for me 

You remember the flood and the fall 
We remember the light on the hill 
There should be enough for us all 
But the dollar is driving us still 

River runs red 
Black rain falls 
Dust in my hand 

River runs red 
Black rain falls 
On my bleeding land 

So we came and conquered and found 
Richers of commons and kings 
Who strangled and wrestled the ground 
But they never put back anything 

Now I'm trapped like a dog in a cage 
Wherever the truth is pursued 
It must be the curse of the age 
What's taken is never renewed 

River runs red...

Support me on Patreon.
Like antediluvian salad on facebook.
Watch me on Deviantart @NashD1.Subscribe to my youtube channel Duane Nash.